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Thursday, 25 August 2016

First Aid Management and Emergency Care You Need To Know

First Aid Management and Emergency Care You Need To Know

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Emergency condition in medical practice is a broad unit in health care and one of the most vital aspects of medical and medical related fields.
As far as health is concern in all its ramifications, be it preventive, curative or promoting aspect, an emergency condition, refer to all serious situations or occurrences that happens unexpectedly and requires an immediate response. Because of the importance of emergency situations worldwide, there is need for organized societal preparations for emergencies in order to save the lives and reduce sufferings among individuals in various communities.
In developed world, there are organizations and personnel that are charged with the responsibilities of preventing and/or minimizing the scourge of such unforeseen situations that
required prompt attentions. Organizations like the Army, Navy, Road Safety, the Police, the Civil Defense, Fire Fighters etc and other non uniformed agencies all have department and personnel charged with the responsibility of carrying out relief assistant for emergency situations.
There are many definitions of health by various authorities each depending on which aspect of health is viewed, because health is having many branches and sub-branches.
Therefore like health, an emergency can be seen as “anything that suddenly threatens the life and welfare of an individual.” It may also mean “serious situation or occurrences that naturally and/or artificially happen to an individual without him expecting it or it magnitude.”
The essence of highlighting the management of emergency to medical and Para-medics alike is to give a conscious and skilful instructions on how to render an efficient and effective emergency care to someone that is seriously ill or injured before and expertise functions are carried out. It is the responsibility of all the sundry or to give assistance or help to all in need.
It is worthy to note that what is not to be done at once is equally having an importance to what is done, in many cases of emergencies. For, some causes more harm than good by increasing the magnitude of the situations instead of relieving them, that is why its calls for broad knowledge and resources on how to render care on such situations in order to make a difference between a non skilled first aider.
First Aid in emergency situations is more important to the individual’s life than any other expertise treatment that he is to be received later, that is why it should be rendered with extra caution preferably by a skilful individual (first aider).
Definitions of First Aid
First aid has no definitive restriction by authors in medical and health fields, but defines it according to what prompted the definition, where and in which case.
First aid has been defined variously as follows;
  1. “As an emergency care for a victim of sudden illness or injury until more skilful medical treatment is available.”
  2. An immediate temporary treatment carried out in emergency situations prior or before the arrival of a doctor or the transportation of the victim to the hospital.
  3. Is the art of giving quick and correct emergency care to those who are sick or hurt so as to prevent shock?
First aid measures depends on victims need and the providers level of knowledge and skills, improper moving of victim with a neck injury due to haste of saving life can lead to permanent spinal injury and/or paralysis. Despite the variety of emergency cases possible, first aid principles in many cases are similar.
General Aims of First Aid
The prime aim why first aid treatment is very important in health is due to the following reasons;
  1. To save the victims life.
  2. To prevent the injuries sustained or the illness from becoming worse.
  3. To possibly relief pain.
  4. To relief anxiety associated with the patient due to the inferno.
  5. To give sense of belonging.
  6. To make the victim become as comfortable as possible.
  7. To prevent early contamination in the case of open wound.
Who is a First Aider?
A first aider is anyone who gives first aid in any emergency situation. However, in health practice as “Any person who possess a skill and have a pre-requisite certificate in health is considered to be a first aider.
General Qualities of a Good First Aider
A good first aider is one who renders an efficient first aid skillfully to a victim of circumstance, qualities of a good first aider is listed below;
  1. Possesses basic knowledge of first aid.
  2. Must be sympathetic.
  3. Must have a common sense of reasoning especially of what to do and what not to do.
  4. Must possess leadership ability in decisiveness and execution.
  5. Must be initiative or improvising.
  6. Must have a spirit of sportsmanship such as agile, smart, diligent and resourceful.
  7. Must be very intelligent.
General Rules of First Aid
Many rules are associated with first aid, depending on various conditions, each requiring a specific rule to be applied. However, there are general rule that are considered to be necessary for all emergency conditions. These rules are termed as “General rules of first aid,” therefore; these general rules are listed below in order of importance or priority in heath.
  1. Remove the patient from the danger or remove further danger away from the patient.
  2. Treat the most urgent situations first and in order of importance following A,B,C of life formula as:
  3. Considering victims with breathing problem (Airways).
  4. Then victims with severe hemorrhage (Bleeding).
  5. Ensure good blood and electrolyte flow to prevent shock (Circulation).
  6. Place all unconscious patients in a prone (flat with face downward) or recumbent position (lying down reclining) with the head turned to the sides.
  7. Unconscious bleeding and vomiting patients must “NEVER” be given anything orally (through the mouth).
  8. All alcoholic drinks should not be given to patients requiring first aid, for they may depress the vital syndrome of the body e.g. temperature pulse, respiration, blood pressure etc.
  9. Re-assure the victim by words of mouth and action. This gives the victim an added confidence in you as a first aider.
  10. Handle patients carefully, especially when fracture(s) or spinal injuries are suspected or noticed.
  11. Do not attempt to lift patient unless there are enough and sufficient helpers.
  12. If clothes are to be removed, cut/tear them from their seams carefully, so that they can be easily stitched up later.
  13. Always remove clothes from the uninjured part first, this enable the gamment to be slipped off the injured part easily.
Assessment of Victims Requiring First Aid.
In any emergency condition, before the institution of first aid care to the victim, the first aider needs to make prompt assessments to enable him know which type of care the victim requires immediately.
Here are just some reasons for assessment of victims:-
  1. To have relevant information on the condition of emergency that may not be possible for those that can give them the next care especially in health center or hospital.
  2. To have firsthand knowledge by identifying the victims problem in order to determine which of the problems need assistant on the prompt and which ones are to be delayed for the professionals intervention in the hospital or somewhere else.
  3. Relief the victims from discomfort, anxiety, worries etc by doing any assistive measures on him, hence the patients confidence on what you are doing to him is going to be won.
In first aid, two STEPS i.e. of taking History and Physical examinations are the key to victim’s assessment.
  1. Taking History: – implies collecting information on the situation/occurrence. Questions usually asked include;
  2. What happened (if conscious or from significant others)?
  3. Where is the location of the problem in the body?
  • When is the onset of the problem (in hours, minutes)?
  1. What is the intensity or extent of the situation?
  2. Ask other relevant information associated with the victim’s complaint as regard to the problem. Here it should be noted that only relevant questions are to be asked in an emergency conditions.
  3. Physical Examination: – During the physical examination, the first aider should make use of his senses, where s/he utilize 4 of his 5 special senses excluding the sense of taste.
The essence of using the senses is to obtain information and assess the situation such as:
  • Is the patient conscious?
  • Is he breathing?
  • What is the patient behavior in response to problem or problems?
  • Is there any wound(s)?
  • Is there any bleeding?
  • Is the pulse rate good? Etc.
In assessing first aid victims where mass individuals (casualties) are involved, a concept of what is known as triage management is to be employed by the first aider.
Triage simply means sorting out of victims according to the degrees of their injuries. In triage management usually labels are used with colors and bands for easy identification to include colors like: –
Red Colors   —   patients with life threatening injuries.
Yellow Colors — patients needing urgent attentions.
Green Colors — patients that can be delayed.
White Colors — patients that are dead already.
N.B. In assessing victims under triage management at first aid level, it is usually not a task that is eventually visible in developing nations as at present. However in triage, it may be due to wild fire out-breaks, mass accidents, flooding etc.
The contents of a first aid box.
First aid box is just a collection of supplies and equipment for use in rendering first aid and can be put together wich often comes in durable plastic boxes, fabric pouches or in a wall mounted cabinets.
NB:- It is recommended that all first aid boxes should have a white cross on a green background with lock and key.
Some of the content in the first aid box include:
  1. Anti-septic e.g. methylated spirit etc.
  2. Various swabs for wound cleaning.
  3. Cotton wool for padding.
  4. Sterile gauze.
  5. Various pairs of forcepts.
  6. A set of safety pin.
  7. Bandages of various sizes.
  8. Non allergic adhesive strip.
  9. Adhesive plaster of various sizes and shapes
  10. Straight splints
  11. Disposable and sterile gloves
  12. Cardio pulmonary resuscitation devices
  13. Spatulas
  14. Tincture of benzene compound T.B.C (iodine solution)
  15. Vaseline gauze e.g dermazine
  16. Mentholated rubs
  17. Nerves and bone liniments
  18. Analgesics e.g. paracetamol, aspirin, feldene etc.
  19. Glucose powder….and many more…..

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